Jitter provides an easy way to rotate an image, and/or zoom it in or out, with an object called jit.rota
. Rotation and zoom are common and useful video effects, and by combining them in different ways in jit.rota
you can also achieve a variety of kaleidoscopic effects. jit.rota
takes a matrix of video data (or any other sort of image) in its inlet, and sends out a version that has been zoomed, rotated, and otherwise distorted based on the settings of the object's attributes.
• Open the tutorial patch 15jImageRotation
in the Jitter Tutorial folder. The QuickTime video dishes.mov
is read into the jit.qt.movie
object automatically by a from loadbang
. To see the video, click on the Display toggle
to start the metro
The video is a three-second left-to-right camera pan over a set of dishes. However, the jit.qt.movie
object has been initialized to , so the movie loops back and forth, giving the illusion of a back-and-forth pan.
attribute of the
Note: Many attributes of Jitter objects use only the arguments 1 and 0 to mean "on" and "off", so it's reasonable to assume that the jit.qt.movie
is the same. While it's true that turns looping off and turns it on, causes the video to play forward and then play backward when it reaches the point, rather than leaping to the point.
determines the angle of rotation around a central anchor point
• Drag on the Rotation Angle number
box to rotate the video. Positive (or increasing) values cause counter-clockwise rotation, and negative (or decreasing) values cause clockwise rotation. The angle of rotation—a.k.a. the angle (theta
)—is stated in radians
. A value of 0—or any multiple of 2π (i.e., 6.283185)—is the normal upright positioning. A value of π (i.e. 3.141593)—or any odd multiple of π—is the fully upside-down position. Experiment until you understand the relationship between the values and the behavior of jit.rota
Technical Detail: jit.rota
does a lot of internal calculation using trigonometry to determine how to rotate the image. If you're not a trigonometry buff, you might not be used to thinking of angles in terms of radians. In everyday conversation we more commonly use degrees
, with a full rotation being 360°. In trigonometry, it's more common to use radians
, where a full rotation equals 2π radians. That's because a circle with a radius of 1 has a circumference of exactly 2π, so you can refer to an angle by referencing the point where it would intersect the unit circle. (For example if you started at a point on the unit circle and traveled a distance of exactly π/2 around the circumference, you would end up at a 90° angle—i.e. an angle of π/2 radians—from where you started, in reference to the circle's center.)
Also, in trigonometry we consider a positive change in angle to be a counter-clockwise rotation around the unit circle, whereas in everyday life you might more commonly think of a clockwise motion as being intuitively "positive" or "increasing" (like the passage of time).
So, to convert a clockwise rotation in degrees into the same rotation in radians, you would need to multiply the degree angle by 2π, then divide by –360.
Besides rotating the image by hand, you can also write an automated process in Max that will supply continually changing rotation angles. In the previous chapter we wrote a subpatch called rotate
that used the line
object to increase the angle of hue rotation continually from 0° to 360°. In this chapter we do something similar, but this time we use the from the metro
that's displaying the movie to increase the angle of rotation. To keep it "user-friendly" we show the user degrees
of angle rotation rather than radians (we convert degrees to radians inside the subpatch), and we also display the rotation speed as "rotations per second."
• In the number
box labeled Degrees per bang
, enter the number . This will cause the rotation angle to increase by 6 degrees with each from the metro
. Since the metro
sends out a 20 times per second (once every 50 ms), we know that we can calculate the number of rotations per second by the formula d*20/360
—that is, d/18
is the degrees of angle increase per . Now click on the toggle
to begin the automated rotation.
• Double click on the patcher
object to see the contents of the subpatch.
Automated rotation in the [rotate] subpatch
We convert what the user specifies as "degrees per accum
object. Note that a negative "degrees per " amount works fine, too, and causes a counter-clockwise rotation of the image. When the total rotation angle exceeds 2π (or -2π), we use a modulo operation to bring it back into range (resetting the value in the accum
object) before sending it to the outlet
. When rotation gets turned off, we detect that fact with a sel
object, and reset the angle to .
" into an amount in radians, by multiplying the degrees by 2π and dividing by –360. (See the Technical Detail sidebar above.) When a comes in the left inlet, if rotation is turned on then the gets passed through and it causes an increase of angle rotation to be added into the
• Close the subpatch window. Click on the On/Off toggle
to stop the automated rotation.
Zoom In or Out
The other main feature of jit.rota
is its zooming capability. The amount of zoom is determined by jit.rota
's and attributes. These permit you to zoom in or out in the horizontal and vertical dimensions independently; or you can zoom both dimensions simultaneously by changing both attributes at once.
• Drag on the number
box labeled Zoom
to zoom in and out. Values greater than 1 expand the image (zoom in), and values less than 1 shrink the image (zoom out). You can change the zoom of the x
dimensions independently by entering values directly into those number
boxes. (Negative zoom values flip the image as well as resize it.)
When we zoom in on the image—say, with a zoom value of 2—we still retain reasonably good image quality because we've turned jit.rota
's attribute on with an message. If you turn off, you will get pixelation when you zoom in. When you're zooming out, has no appreciable effect, so it's pretty much a waste of the computer's time. (See Tutorial 14
for a discussion of pixelation and interpolation.) However, interpolation does improve the look of rotated images, even when they've been shrunk by zooming out.
Beyond the Edge
• Set the zoom of both dimensions to some small value, such as
When the image does not fill the entire display area because of shrinking or rotation, jit.rota
has to decide what to do with the rest of the matrix that lies outside the image area. At present jit.rota
is setting all the cell values outside the image area to 0, making them all black. The way that jit.rota
handles the cells that lie outside the image boundaries is determined by its attribute. The different available settings are presented in the popup menu labeled Space outside the image
in the upper-right corner of the patch. We initialized the value to , which instructs jit.rota
to clear all the outlying cells. Here is the meaning of each of the settings:
• Ignore: Leave all outlying cells unchanged from their previous values.
• Clear: Set all outlying cell values to 0.
• Wrap: Begin the image again, as many times as necessary to fill the matrix.
• Clip: For all the outlying cells, continue to use the values of the boundary cells of the image.
• Fold: Repeat the image, flipped back in the opposite direction.
• For special effects when the image is zoomed out, try setting the
attribute to (wrap) for a "Warhol" duplicate image effect, or (fold) for a kaleidoscope effect.
• Now try turning the automated rotation back on, to combine rotation and zoom, and modify the different parameters (Degrees per bang, Zoom, and Space outside the image).
• When you have finished experimenting, turn off the automated rotation and return the zoom attributes (
Some Adjustments—Anchor Point and Offset
and ) to .
Up to now we've been using the center of the image as the center point of the rotation. However, you can actually choose any point around which to rotate the image. The central anchor point
of the rotation is set with the and attributes. Right now those attributes are set to and , but you can change them in the number
boxes labeled Anchor point
• Try different anchor points, and drag on the Rotation Angle number
box to see the effect. Some anchor point settings you might want to try are 0,0
. You might want to set the attribute to so that you can see the effects of different rotations more clearly. Note that the and values are specified relative to the upper-left corner of the matrix, but they may exceed the bounds of the matrix's dimensions.
In addition, you can move the image to a different location in the output matrix after zooming and rotation take place, using the
• To see this most effectively, first click on the message
box above the pvar
object in the lower right corner of the patch. This will set the rotation angle, boundary mode, zoom, and anchor points back to the settings we used at the outset of this chapter. (We have given names to the relevant user interface objects so that we can communicate with them via pvar
.) Now set the Zoom
number box to some value between 0 and 1, to zoom out on the image.
• Use the Location offset number
boxes to move the image around by changing the and values. Try this in conjunction with , to see its utility in the "kaleidoscope" mode.
• When you have finished, reset the Location offset values to .
We've devised one more way for you to rotate the image.
• Click in the jit.pwindow
display object and, with the mouse button held down, drag in a small circular motion around the center of the object.
tracks your mouse movements and, as long the mouse button is down, it sends coordinate information (and other mouse information) out its right outlet in the form of messages. The first two arguments of the message are the x
coordinates of the mouse, relative to the upper left corner of jit.pwindow
. We use those coordinates to calculate the angle of the mouse relative to the center of the jit.pwindow
, and we send that angle to jit.rota
as the argument to the attribute.
You can use the mouse location in jit.pwindow
as control information
Technical Detail: Do you really want to know how we did that calculation? If so, read on.
If we think of the center point of the jit.pwindow
as the origin point 0,0
, and we think of the current mouse location relative to that as being a point along a circle around the origin, then we can describe a right triangle based on those two points. By taking the arctangent of the mouse's coordinates y/x
, we get the angle of the mouse relative to the center of jit.pwindow
So we take the incoming x
coordinates, and the first thing we do is convert them so that they're relative to the center of the jit.pwindow
. We do that by subtracting 160 from the x
dimension coordinate (so the x values will now go from -160 to 160) and multiplying the y
coordinate by –1 (so values will increase as we go up, instead of down) then adding 119.5 to it. (If we added exactly 120, then every time we had a y
coordinate of 120 from jit.pwindow
we'd be trying to divide by 0 in expr
, which is an undefined mathematical operation.) Once we have converted the x
coordinates, we take the arctangent of y/x
to get the angle in radians, then multiply that angle value by -1 to make clockwise rotation of the mouse cause clockwise rotation of the image.
This method only works within a 180° span, because the arctangent function can't tell the difference between a mouse location and its opposite point on the circle. (The calculation of y/x
will be the same for both points.) So, every time the y
coordinate of the mouse goes into the bottom half of the jit.pwindow
, we add an offset of -π to the theta angle to distinguish those locations from their counterparts on the opposite side. (That's the last part of the expression.)
Note that this expression only works relative to the point 160,120
in the jit.pwindow
. If we wanted to make an expression that works for the central point of any
, we'd need to get the jit.pwindow
's dimensions with a message, and use the values as variables in our expression. As the math books say, "We'll leave that as an exercise for the reader."
object provides an easy way to rotate an image with its attribute, specifying an angle of rotation, in radians. It also provides an easy way to zoom in and out on an image with its and attributes. You can change the central point of the rotation with the and attributes, and you can move the resulting image in the output matrix with the and attributes. You can change the way that jit.rota
treats the matrix cells that lie outside of the resulting image with the attribute. Using all of these capabilities in combination, you can get image-duplication and kaleidoscope effects in addition to simple zoom and rotation.
Zooming and rotation involve some rather intensive internal calculation by jit.rota
, so these operations make substantial demands on the computer's processor. If you're curious, the formulae for these calculations are in the jit.rota.help
file. There are additional attributes, not covered in this tutorial, that give you access to virtually every coefficient in the rotation formula, presenting you even more possibilities for distorting and rotating the image. These, too, are shown in jit.rota.help
To manage the control of so many attributes at once, you can devise automated Max processes to generate attribute values, and/or interactive controls to change the values with gestures.
Store, add to, and multiply a number
Evaluate a mathematical expression
Conditional statement in if/then/else form
Play or edit a QuickTime movie
Scale/rotate in 2D
Look for a range of numbers